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“Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They don’t eat up people’s gardens, don’t nest in corncribs, they don’t do one thing but sing their hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.”
The novel “To Kill a Mockingbird” is set in the fictional town of Maycomb. It revolves around separate but interconnected events– Scout and Jem Finch’s daily lives and their father’s (Atticus Finch) imperilment as a lawyer.
Maycomb is a prosaic town sprinkled with azaleas and geraniums but is a sleeping volcano of racist tendencies. This is why when a white woman, Mayella Ewell, accused Tom Robinson, a Black man, of rape, Maycomb did not think twice about convicting him.
A fair lawyer, Atticus Finch, did not think twice about defending Robinson despite the entire town turning on him.
Meanwhile, Atty. Finch’s children, Scout and Jem, and their friends go on their counterpart of drama and thrill as they nose around the weird Boo Radley, a recluse who became a local legend.
The novel climaxes as the case of Robinson v. Ewell heads straight to a hooking twist–Ewell’s father (Bob Ewell) assaulted her. Despite this conclusion being evidence-backed, the court sentenced Robinson to death. Maycomb killed a mockingbird. Meanwhile, Boo Radley killed Bob Ewell to defend Scout and Jem. Radley escaped conviction when Sheriff Tate refused to “… shootin’ a mockingbird.”
This award-winning novel by Harper Lee stayed one of the most celebrated for decades. The epic symbolism in the novel might be one of the reasons why To Kill a Mockingbird is a common favorite for distinguished people.
The novel used numerous symbols, but this essay discusses only four of To Kill a Mockingbird’s symbolism.
A mockingbird is an enduring symbol of innocence and beauty in the novel. The mockingbird symbol is especially for Tom Robinson and Boo Radley–both falsely accused of crimes and scandals they did not commit. The mockingbird also symbolizes the dauntless innocence of Scout, Jem, and their friends.
When Tom Robinson was falsely convicted and sentenced to death, people called it “killing a mockingbird”–symbolized the death of an innocent man and a victim of racism.
Similarly, when Boo Radley killed Bob Ewell when Ewell hurt the kids, Sheriff Tate covered up for him because convicting him would be like “killing a mockingbird.”
Finch, a type of small bird, is Scout, Jem, and Atticus’ last name. This fact goes hand in hand with the motif (mockingbird) of the novel. Being friends and the defendant of the mockingbirds (Robinson and Radley) subjects the Finches to the violence of racism, bullying, and power play in the town of Maycomb.
Rabid Dog Symbolism
The dog gone rabid symbolizes how a mundane, amiable creature can suddenly pose a threat, just like how Maycomb went violent towards Robinson and Atty. Finch. The usual family-friendly town turned into a lynching, angry mob due to mindless racism.
Atticus was the one who shot the rabid dog, justifying it as the better thing to do and the safest for everyone in town. This scene symbolizes how he was willing to “shoot down” racism in his town.
Mayella Ewell, despite her second-hand murder and false rape claims against Tom Robinson and the deteriorated state of her house, still managed to grow and maintain beautiful red geraniums in her flower pots.
This symbolizes Mayella’s subconscious attempt to “beautify” or “save” her unfortunate family affairs and misery. It may also come to some audiences as a message of chilling hope that life and beauty will always coexist with death and the ugly.
For decades, To Kill a Mockingbird has been one of the major icons of the fight against bullying and injustice. It inspires and will continue to inspire people to stand up for what is right and maintain integrity at all times. To Kill a Mockingbird is not only an indelible experience once read but also a novel full of moral lessons people of any age must keep treasured.
Harrison Bergeron is a short story written by an American writer named Kurt Vonnegut Jr.. It is a satirical, dystopian, science fiction story based on a society whose desperate attempt to achieve perfection resulted in misfortunes. The story was initially published in October 1961 and was republished in 1968 by the Welcome to the Monkey House Collection.
The story takes place in the year 2081. In line with the amendments to the constitution, every American citizen is entirely equal. This means that no one is weaker than the other, no one is slower, no one is uglier, faster, or wiser— all are equal. Agents and generals monitor and ensure that the law of equality is enforced.
The story starts on one fateful day in April. A then fourteen-year-old Harrison Bergeron was taken away from his parents—George and Hazel. However, both of his parents were not fully aware of this tragedy. Hazel’s intelligence is average, resulting in a lack of awareness of her surroundings. People like Hazel possess such intelligence and cannot think or stretch their thinking time. On the other hand, despite having great intelligence, George could not comprehend well because the law requires people with above-average intelligence to wear a radio twenty-four hours a day. The government broadcasts a noise over these radios, which interrupts the thoughts of intelligent citizens like George.
When Hazel and George watch the ballerinas dance on TV, Hazel cries but can’t grasp the cause of her tears. After a while, She and George praise the dancers on TV. The ballerinas were masked to hide their good looks and were handicapped to make their moves appear average. After a few moments of watching, George’s thoughts were interrupted by a noise.
Two ballerinas also appear to get distracted, which means they possess above-average intelligence. There was a brief moment when George thought about his son, Harrison, as another noise distracted him from his thoughts. Before thinking deeper, Hazel urges him to lie down and rest his handicap bag, which weighs 47 pounds. This bag was placed and locked around George’s neck. Instead of lying down, he decided to get up and fetch some beer to help him relax a little bit. Hazel just smiled and agreed.
The TV soon flashes a piece of news that was read by a man who has a speech impairment. Hazel praised the man for trying and said that he deserved a raise. When the man gives up trying, he passes the bulletin to a ballerina. The lady then read it in her natural, lovely voice. Still, after being aware of what she had done, she immediately apologized and continued reading it using a low-almost-growling voice so that no one would get jealous. The bulletin says that Harrison has escaped from prison.
They flashed a picture of Harrison on the TV. He is wearing his handicapped that were made to suppress his strength, good looks, and intelligence. There was a rumbling noise on the TV. What followed was a video of Harrison removing his handicapped and claiming that he is the emperor and the greatest ruler in history and soon took off his handicapped to reveal his good looks. He ordered everyone to obey his commands, and he would make them royalty. Harrison then looked for a potential wife, saying he would make her the queen of his kingdom. A ballerina stepped up, removed her handicapped, and revealed her goddess-like beauty.
Harrison ordered two musicians to play a song, and he will make them royalties. They danced to the music, and as if defying gravity, they floated 30 meters up in the air where they kissed. Diana Moon Glampers, the head handicapped general, came to the studio with a shotgun and shot both Harrison and the ballerina. She also warned both of the musicians to wear their handicapped or she’ll shoot them too. The TV screen turned black, and afterwards, George came with his beer and asked Hazel why she was crying. Hazel, who couldn’t remember what happened, said she watched something sad. Unaware of all these happenings, George advised Hazel to avoid remembering anything painful. Up to the end, both are unaware of what happened to their son, Harrison.
Harrison Bergeron by Kurt Vonnegut is a tragic short story that bravely talks about different issues that we experience up to this moment. As they say, one cannot achieve perfection without flaws. This short story reminded us that overdoing something might make us forget the purpose of doing it all. Perfectionism is a disease that kills the hope for equality. Knowing and drawing clear boundaries between right and wrong should be the top priority to achieve equality.
In conclusion, Harrison is an excellent example of someone who has been silenced and suppressed but bravely stood up, showing his defiance and hunger for power. Equality in this story was taken into literal form. In reality, equality pertains to the rights and freedom of everyone, not to how we look or think because we are all made different from each other.
This story has raised awareness not only among many citizens but also among the leaders. Like Harrison, many of us are breaking free from society’s constraints of social norms. In the end, the story depicts how equally unequal their community is.
Is blindly and impatiently chasing something that was eventually lost sound familiar?
Shakespeare’s Macbeth certainly thinks so.
After several eras, the story “Macbeth” and its moral lessons remain relevant to the modern age. It is one of the major topics for critical, analytical, and literary essays for college students globally. “Macbeth” may be the shortest tragedy Shakespeare has written; still, it is not scarce on heavy themes, symbolism, wisdom, and drama.
Macbeth’s story starts when three witches prophesied his dual title gain after his victorious battles alongside his friend and co-general, Banquo. Shakespeare was vague on why the witches deemed it necessary to prophesy Macbeth. However, this literary essay will clarify what Macbeth chose to do with this prophecy.
The play consisted of 5 acts. Heavy fantasy, medieval settings, and human emotions filled every scene. Let us tackle each.
In Act 1, Macbeth’s ego evolves when the witches’ first prophecy about him comes true, enhanced by the fact that he is a victor of multiple battles. This scene is where it all goes wrong. He had two choices: Be grateful and patient for the “King of Scotland” prophecy to happen naturally, or be greedy and rush the process. Mixing with his wife’s hunger for power, Macbeth chooses the latter.
Act 2 gives Macbeth the option to take the other road. However, his greed increases and Lady Macbeth nourishes this greed for personal gain. After killing his beloved King Duncan to accelerate his kingship, Macbeth sinks into tormenting guilt and self-loath.
In Act 3, Macbeth indeed becomes King of Scotland. Instead of being a good King, his rampant greed and remorse for killing his King made him a tyrant. Further, Macbeth’s paranoia about Banquo’s children overthrowing him compels him to murder another friend and his children. Here, Macbeth loses his chances of retribution, for Banquo’s son, Fleance, survives.
In Act 4, King Macbeth tries to soothe himself by seeking more prophecy from the witches. The three witches–may be sensing Macbeth’s dark intentions and brokenness–indulge him with vague predictions such as no man born of a woman can harm him.
This insatiable greed and blind chase for power denied him the signs of an upcoming rebellion against him by Macduff and King Duncan’s surviving son, Malcolm.
In the last Act, Macbeth learns that Lady Macbeth committed suicide due to self-inflicted suffering. It is debatable that he could have chosen to surrender to the incoming rebellion led by Macduff and Malcolm. Instead, his greed and pride override his grief.
King Macbeth gloats over his enemies, knowing that the witches prophesied that anyone born of a woman could not harm him. Because of his greed and desperation for comfort from his grief, Macbeth fails to protect himself from Macduff, who was technically not born of a woman but was pulled out from his mother’s womb instead (caesarian).
Realizing his mistake of haste trapped him, Macbeth surrenders to Macduff, who then beheads him as a symbol of the people’s triumph over King Macbeth’s tyranny.
Malcolm becomes King of Scotland to serve as a velveteen sheet over Macbeth’s betrayal of his father, the late King Duncan, and the people of Scotland during his reign of terror.
The story of Macbeth delivered not only a thrilling drama but also hinted at noteworthy lessons for people of any age and era.
First, “Macbeth” teaches us that “sleeping on it” is worth every second. When Macbeth received the glittering prophecy of his kingship, he let his excitement and pride run over his chances to take the news calmly. When Lady Macbeth suggested they kill King Duncan, Macbeth could have let the night slip away in peace and talked about the situation when their shock and greed subsided after a good sleep.
Second, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth could have avoided their tragedies if they had only taken their prophecy in the same way Banquo took his. Banquo accepts it with patience and humility, both of which Macbeth and his wife seemingly do not possess. Banquo could have killed Macbeth and his family to claim the throne for his children, but his morals prevented it. Macbeth sabotages his successful fate with his oversized ego and impatience.
Lastly, this story teaches us to be careful about whom we listen to. Macbeth’s first mistake was listening to the three witches and taking their word at face value, knowing they could have been toying with him. Another one is him listening to all of Lady Macbeth’s wicked persuasion and the torture of his masculinity, constantly challenging him to “man up.”
In real life, we should always be mindful of whom we take advice from, even from a trusted friend or lover.
Shakespeare’s “Macbeth” is not as celebrated as his “Romeo and Juliet” or “Hamlet.” Still, its theme, plot, and character design give it an edge in the literary world. If anyone is at a point in life where they think they will never get there, Macbeth shows examples of why one should always “sleep on it.”
“Darling, I am done ordering. Are you finished with the menu?”
“It is okay. I am not hungry.”
“But you said you–.”
“I said I was fine. I will just have water because, obviously, I am not hungry.”
The husband stared at his wife. She shrugged and sipped her icy water. After his order arrived, she watched him eat with a deep frown on her face and an occasional deep sigh. As soon as he took the last bite of his beef wrap, she skittered out the door without a glance.
The poor man could not sleep that night. What could have possibly made her upset?
Apparently, he did not order for her like he used to, knowing she gets anxious talking to a server. It has been five years since she married this man. How could he still not know her? Did he expect her to get over her anxiety in a snap? Actually, that is what he thought, hence his ordering only for himself.
This anecdote demonstrates the differences between a man and a woman perfectly. These striking contrasts between genders may be the root of every gender norm and role and the off-balance of gender equality. Even before a baby is born, its gender is the first thing people consider to tailor their gifts and unsolicited advice according to it.
Since time immemorial, society has subjected men and women to specific gender norms and roles. Let us discuss the gender norms and roles in the past versus the modern age’s take on them and how it affects today’s silent battle for gender equality.
The past had treated women differently than men. Women were once considered property that could be gifted or bought. Women who could read, count, and write were considered witches or strange. Women’s opinions were seldom heard. By the time kingdoms were waging wars against each other, some women had gained status, especially if they were born royal. Everyone looked up to royal women, if not entirely worshiped. Cleopatra, Joan of Arc, Wu Zetian, Queen Elizabeth I, and Catherine the Great are excellent examples. Still, if a woman was peasant-born, she was considered lower than men and had little to no rights.
As the eras progressed, women gained access to education, paid labor, and the freedom to live independently. In the late 19th century, women could manage their businesses, adopt pets, travel alone, vote, and leave their husbands as they saw fit. Nonetheless, these were still frowned upon due to traditional and religious views.
Gender norms and roles for women might have been drastically changing every century. However, some gender norms and roles have persisted.
Some of these, but not limited to, are being submissive, family-oriented (having kids), nurturing, sensitive, emotional, bookish, gentle, classy, beauty conscious, and physically weak.
Modern women are free from the curse of being one’s property, lack of voting rights, wearing chosen clothes, and the imperative duty to be a housewife. Yet, society still expects women to stay at home to take care of the house and the kids. Other cultures still force women to marry a distant relative or someone older to please the family. Society still frowns at some women’s choice of being child-free, not wanting to get married, and being a nomad. Old traditions and control over women’s bodies are still prevalent today.
The good news is that society now welcomes women to engage in activities reserved for men. Acquiring an engineering or architectural degree, triumphing in the sports industry, and physically-taxing jobs. These are the results of women fighting for their rights.
Men, on the other hand, dominated the world in the past. Men were more trusted and depended on to command and create. A household without a man is an open pantry for evildoers. If newborns were male, it would be a cause for celebration. Men always had the final say, and people tend to take their words more seriously than a woman. Men were leaders, decision-makers, builders, and workers. Because of this, people honored and worshiped their work and success. Albert Einstein, Alexander the Great, Aristotle, Michaelangelo, and Jesus were just a few examples.
Although they monopolized almost everything under the sun, this did not mean they had more manageable lives than women.
Upper-class society subjected peasant-born males to slavery, hard labor, and wars. These demands forced men to leave their families for long periods. While women spent their hard days with their children or relatives, men spent their hard days alone or with other men with whom they could not form a comfortable bond. Even when a man was a royal, it was the norm that he spent weeks away from home to tend to important matters.
Nowadays, society still expects men to be physically strong and defeat challenges while maintaining mental and emotional composure. For centuries, tradition and culture told men to “man up,” be assertive, and be bold. This advice was a good trait for many situations and stayed in today’s culture. The society also pressures men to be financially successful and attain a good reputation. Men who lack these qualities will be bullied and looked down on. This treatment causes mental exhaustion and emotional incapability in most men, which would cause several suicides, mental breakdowns, and unstable relationships.
There is a silver lining, however. Modern society encourages men to express their emotions healthily. It gives them the freedom of career choices—fewer people bases men’s success not on their bank account but on their holistic characteristics.
We have differentiated men’s and women’s gender norms and roles throughout the centuries, which leads us to the question: Are all genders equal? Is it possible for men and women to live in harmony?
Gender equality has been off balance for centuries because of traditional gender norms and roles cited earlier. However, with the help of new knowledge about the humanity and needs of all genders, and an open mind, men and women can live in harmony. The key to gender equality is practicing the basic human morals: Respect and compassion for one another.
“The yellow wallpaper” is a classic written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. It is considered one of the early feminist works dealing with a woman’s mental health issues. This short story uses “the yellow wallpaper” as a prominent symbol to show the narrator’s gradual descent into psychosis.
The author has brought two issues to the forefront of the readers – mental health and women’s self-identity using various themes and symbols. In fact, this haunting psychological story explores 3 major themes – the importance of self-expression, the evils of “rest cure,” and women’s subordination in marriage.
The journal entries by the narrator form the basis of the story, which is written in the first person. Along with the protagonist, her husband and his sister are other prominent characters in the story.
The story begins with the protagonist arriving at a large house for vacation with her husband, John, a doctor. John thinks the vacation will benefit the narrator, who just gave birth to their baby and likely suffers from postpartum depression.
Right from the beginning, the protagonist feels something queer about the whole situation that led them to vacation in the large house. The queer feeling is about her illness – nervous depression and marriage.
However, her concerns and thoughts are sidelined and belittled by her husband. It’s interesting to note the contrast between husband and wife, where the husband is practical and rationalistic. But, the wife is imaginative and sensitive.
The treatment for the narrator’s illness is not to do anything active, and she especially is not allowed to work or write. However, she believes that movement, freedom, and an intriguing job might benefit her condition, and she starts writing a private journal to “relieve her thoughts.” Her writings mostly describe the house and the yellow wallpaper that she finds hideous.
Although the protagonist finds the wallpaper revolting, she becomes obsessed with it as time passes. She describes her husband’s condescending ways in the journal and continues describing the wallpaper, which turns menacing in the course of the story.
As time passes, the protagonist grows tired and spends sleepless nights, becoming more obsessed with the wallpaper. It must be observed that the revolting wallpaper has become her obsession, and she is fond of it. The narrator tries decoding the pattern of the wallpaper as her primary entertainment.
As her fascination for the wallpaper deepens, the sub-pattern of the wallpaper becomes more explicit. It resembles a lady “stooping down and creeping” behind the main pattern of wallpaper, which resembles the bars of a prison.
When the narrator expresses an interest in leaving the house, John dismisses her concerns, essentially silencing her. This seemingly pushes her toward the wallpaper, and the repulsive attraction with the paper deepens with each such dismissal from John.
Soon we can see that the wallpaper dominates the protagonist’s imagination, and she grows secretive about her interest in the yellow wallpaper. The subpattern resembles a woman attempting to get out of the main pattern as time passes. According to the narrator, she is seen shaking the bars at night and creeping about during the day.
She feels John and Jennie are aware of her preoccupation, so she destroys the paper once and for all, ripping much of it off at night. The next day, she is alone and goes into a frenzy, biting and tearing at the paper in an attempt to rescue the captive woman, whom she sees struggling from within the pattern.
By the conclusion, the narrator is persuaded that many crawling women have emerged from the wallpaper—that she is the trapped lady. She wanders about the room incessantly, smearing the wallpaper as she goes. When John enters the locked chamber, he realizes the full horror of the circumstance and faints in the doorway, forcing the narrator to “crawl over him every time!”
Juvenile justice is among the hot topics discussed worldwide in legal and social circles. Although the judicial system was established long back, there is no proper juvenile justice system in place in most countries.
Most countries don’t distinguish between juveniles and adults, and both are sentenced as per adult laws. It brings us to the question – should juveniles be tried as adults?
There are various arguments that are “for” and “against” trying juveniles as adults. However, there is widespread agreement that juvenile law and policy reforms are required.
Keeping the juvenile crime rate and the psychological level of juveniles in view, let’s explore: “Why should juveniles not be tried as adults?”
Most of the states in the U.S. have different laws and policies concerning juveniles. One can find that some states try juveniles as adults and imprison them with adult inmates. In many of these cases, juveniles face brutal attacks from other adult inmates and are subjected to inhuman conditions.
The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimates that over one million children are incarcerated worldwide. Many are imprisoned in deplorable, harsh, and critical conditions. Furthermore, they are bereaved of education, meaningful activities, or contact with the outside world.
One can also note that many of these juvenile convicts have been imprisoned when they were children and have received disproportionate sentences. It can also be seen that some children were held for acts that weren’t crimes, such as skipping school, running away from home, etc.,
According to recent studies, shifting children from juvenile court to adult court does not reduce recidivism and, in fact, increases criminality. Furthermore, research states that juveniles, including teenagers, behave irrationally. They are immature and can make decisions on impulse.
Such behavior requires assistance for redemption and change. And as such, juvenile detention facilities have proper programs to aid in the reformation process. This kind of help is absent in adult prisons. Instead, those places add more stress and can doom them for life.
While serious crimes such as murder need careful analysis and punishment for crime, sentencing juveniles for petty crimes do not make sense. And also, juveniles must not be tried as adults since their mental development is incomplete.
As noted above, juveniles in adult prison are five times more likely to be sexually raped and about fifty percent more likely to be assaulted with a weapon. Furthermore, they are likely to be tortured physically by jail employees and eight times more probably to commit suicide than youngsters in juvenile facilities.
Young people sentenced in adult courts face the same sentences as adults. This puts child criminals at the back of the line for any rehabilitation programs and further presents them with a life without parole.
As a result, it is hard to apply for pardon due to the failure to testify to any form of rehabilitation. Therefore, it is not appropriate to hold teenagers and children who are not yet of legal drinking age to grown-up standards of punishment.
There are differences in identifying the differences between adults and minors in various other areas of law. Juveniles are not given the same duties and rights as adults because they are deemed incapable of making adult decisions.
It must be noted that reforms have to be made in various areas and policies concerning juvenile justice. For instance, juveniles must be tried in youth courts and not be seen through the lens of adults. The punishment or reformative actions must be conducive to their reformation.
One can consider adopting strategies followed in European countries to try juveniles developmentally appropriately. Taking European practices into account can help avoid the harm that can be caused by prosecuting very young children.
It also allows appropriately serving older teens as per their crime. Furthermore, because young adults are over-represented in the U.S. criminal system and have the highest recidivism rates, reforms could benefit both youth and public safety.
To conclude, trying juveniles as adults must be stopped, and proper reforms must be brought to the system. Knee-jerk measures, such as prosecuting more 16- and 17-year-olds in adult court with the fear of permanent criminal records and lengthy prison sentences, are not the solution to the crime problem.
We must rehabilitate juvenile offenders rather than shackling them with adult criminal punishments that will create lifelong hurdles to employment and education. We’ve seen the devastation that resulted, and we shouldn’t go there again.
The Second World War is one of the bloodiest conflicts ever fought in human history. The destruction and bloodbath were unprecedented, bringing the world the closest to “total warfare.” Between September 1, 1939, and the formal surrender of Japan on September 2, 1945, an average of 27,000 people were slaughtered every day. Overall 40 to 50 million people died as a result of the war.
World War II started with Hitler’s invasion of Poland. Several players fought the war. The two sides of the conflict were the Axis Powers, which included Germany, Japan, and Italy, and the Allies on the other side. The Allied Forces consisted of France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United Nations of America, and China.
Both the World Wars were a watershed moment in twentieth-century geo-political history. It resulted in the Soviet Union’s dominance being extended to nations in Eastern Europe, allowing a communist movement to gain power in China eventually. It signaled a significant change in global power away from Western European states and toward the United States and the Soviet Union.
Adolf Hitler launched his invasion of Poland at dawn on Friday, September 1, 1939. The Poles battled valiantly, but they were vastly outmanned in soldiers and machines, particularly in the air. On September 3, 1939, France and Britain declared war on Germany but provided no substantial support to Poland.
Stalin invaded eastern Poland two weeks later, and Warsaw surrendered on September 27. After another week of warfare, the organized Polish resistance ended. Hitler and Stalin partitioned Poland.
Soon after Poland, Hitler invaded Denmark, Norway, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands in 1940. German U-boats targeted ships supplying Britain, including US ships. Japan, along with Germany and Italy, formed the Axis powers.
In Poland, the Nazis began a reign of terror that claimed six million people, half of them were Polish Jews executed in extermination camps. The Soviet government was no less severe. Stalin ordered the execution of nearly 20,000 Polish officers and others who had been seized in September 1939 in March and April 1940.
Tens of thousands of Poles were also brutally deported to Siberia. Despite his commitments to Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin had established a subservient communist administration in Poland by May 1945.
The Blitz, an acronym for Blitzkrieg, was the name given to German air raids on Britain between September 7, 1940, and May 16, 1941. On the night of August 24, 1940, London was accidentally bombarded, and the next night, Churchill ordered an attack on Berlin.
The Germans shifted their focus from assaulting RAF airfields to bombing British towns and cities. On September 7, 1940, dubbed “Black Saturday,” the first significant attacks on London began. The capital was bombed for 57 nights in a row by the Luftwaffe, which dropped around 13,650 tons of high explosives and 12,586 incendiary canisters.
After Japan’s conquest of French Indo-China in July 1941, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, followed by the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, ordered the freeze of Japanese assets. Many Japanese people now believed that the only option was to go to war with the United States and the European colonial powers.
In October 1941, a hardline government under General Hideki Tojo took office, and plans were formulated to deal a severe blow to the Americans. On December 7, 1941, “a date that will live in infamy,” Japanese carrier-borne aircraft attacked the US Pacific fleet at its base in the Hawaiian Islands, Pearl Harbor. Despite the warnings, the Americans were utterly taken off guard.
Eight battleships were decommissioned, and seven additional warships were damaged or lost. Over 2,500 Americans were killed, while just 29 Japanese planes were lost. Notably, the American carriers were at sea and thus escaped, and the base itself was not shut down. The US Congress, led by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, declared war on Japan the next day.
For six months after Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces carried all before them, seizing Hong Kong, Malaya, the Philippines, and the Dutch East Indies, precisely as Admiral Yamamoto prophesied. In May 1942, the Japanese planned to destroy the United States as a strategic Pacific power in order to strengthen their grip on their new conquests.
Fighting raged on throughout the Pacific between 1944 and early 1945, with critical battles on Leyte, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa. Most of Japan’s conquests had been liberated by the late spring of 1945, and Allied forces began closing in on the Japanese mainland.
The Allies launched massive bombing assaults against major Japanese cities, including Tokyo, as they approached Japan. This process proceeded throughout the summer of 1945 until the United States ultimately dropped two Atomic bombs. They attacked Hiroshima on August 6 and Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Japan surrendered a few days later, stunned by the sudden damage.
On the afternoon of May 8, 1945, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill delivered the radio announcement that the entire world had been anticipating. He announced on the radio, “Yesterday morning at 2.41 a.m., at General Eisenhower’s headquarters, General Jodl, the representative of the German High Command, and Grand Admiral Dönitz, the designated head of the German State, signed the act of unconditional surrender of all German land, sea, and air forces in Europe,”.
In the same year, US President Harry S. Truman declared the surrender of Japan and the end of World War II. The news immediately spread, and jubilation erupted across the country. On September 2, 1945, formal capitulation documents were signed aboard the USS Missouri, establishing the day as Victory over Japan Day. After six years of brutal fighting, millions of lives lost, and nations wholly decimated, the global war finally came to an end.
Today, cyber security risk management is a top priority for business leaders. Given the recent deluge of ransomware attacks and data breaches, companies have become increasingly aware of their firms’ vulnerabilities. Security breaches have risen significantly as more companies transfer to the cloud due to the pandemic.
Organizations require cyber security to protect sensitive data, cash statements, and intellectual property. Individuals also require it to protect their private information as well as intellectual property.
In the case of governmental institutions, robust cyber security ensures reliability and functionality. A security breach on a power plant, for example, may result in a city-wide blackout. Moreover, if cyberattacks target banks and financial institutions, they could steal millions of dollars from hundreds of thousands of account holders. Thus, the necessity of information security in modern-day organizations cannot be discounted.
The year 2021 witnessed critical infrastructure breaches across the globe. The pandemic essentially demonstrated how interconnected all organizations are in this digital age. Rising digital transformation has pushed the global population down new cyber risks and attack paths. We have witnessed how one company’s security breach may have a trickle effect on other organizations, from affiliates to end consumers.
According to an International Data Corporation report, global spending on cyber security solutions would reach a staggering $133.7 billion by 2022. Governments worldwide have issued recommendations to assist firms in implementing strong cyber security policies. This is in response to the expanding global cyber threat.
The total financial damages incurred by cyber warfare exceed the total losses incurred by the global trade in all illegal narcotics. Thus, individuals and organizations operating on the internet or the cloud are concerned about potential hacking situations and data breaches. Cyber security has now become a board-level issue, taking precedence as a business goal.
The biggest obstacle in cyber security is technological advancement, which provides hackers with an ever-expanding list of potential entry points. To make matters worse, thieves continue to develop new techniques for executing cyber attacks.
Consequently, cyber security specialists are constantly forming new solutions to shut out potential vulnerabilities. Regardless of their efforts, hackers constantly discover new ways to conduct attacks. Therefore, cyber security is ever-evolving, and companies must be on their toes to stay ahead of cybercriminals.
It is complicated for enterprises to keep up with the ever-changing nature of information technology. In addition to that, it is also very costly to update security infrastructures. It necessitates ongoing attention to the field of security and regular updates.
Another significant difficulty in cyber security management is the amount of data most firms have. The more data a corporation has, the more appealing a target it becomes. This is especially true when it involves sensitive information.
This puts the people whose data the organization stores in danger of having their personal information stolen. Moreover, it also puts the company at risk of lawsuits if that confidential information is gained due to negligence.
Furthermore, cyber security professionals are currently scarce. According to some estimates, there are up to two million unfilled cyber security jobs worldwide. This scarcity has been mitigated in some ways by machine learning (ML) and other technical advancements, but it remains an impediment.
Experts believe that small and medium-sized businesses cyber resilience is a weak point in the supply chains and systems. Half of the overall cyber assaults are aimed at small firms. These firms typically lack adequate cyber security safeguards to protect themselves from such threats.
According to a 2020 poll, the most prevalent cyber threats suffered by US businesses include the following:
Cyberattacks are not going away anytime soon; in fact, their intensity has increased over the years. However, business leaders can take apparent and tangible steps to better prepare themselves and their organizations for an attack. Many businesses require network security understanding to avoid costly identity theft and network intrusions, which can ruin any company’s reputation.
Aside from building firewalls and advanced IT protocols, businesses are now emphasizing enhancing the capabilities of their IT workers. Corporate employees must have cyber security awareness to recognize potential threats. After all, exercising cyber hygiene can easily prevent up to 80 percent of data breaches and unauthorized access.
Reports suggest that there is one cyber attack every 14 seconds. A company’s entire network system must work together to outwit surprisingly sophisticated cybercrimes. This would include firewalls, antivirus software, anti-spyware software, and password management systems.
Undoubtedly, cyber security should be a priority for all businesses. The continuous transition from cyber security to cyber resilience is critical to building a more trustworthy and sustainable future.
“Letter from a Birmingham Jail” is one of the greatest influential writings by Dr. Martin Luther King. He wrote this epic letter as a political prisoner on the 16th of April, 1963. Dr. King, along with many other civil rights leaders, was arrested for disregarding an injunction by a judge.
King wrote a letter from prison in response to criticism he faced for his nonviolent campaigns and activism. The letter is directed at white supremacists and their powerless victims. This letter is one of the celebrated pieces of writing and has been regarded as a jewel in literature.
Even after 50 years, this letter is reviewed in literature circles for its incredible value, message, and writing prowess. It is especially praised for its use of rhetorical appeals.
King’s ability to appeal to the crowd and the overview of rhetorical appeals makes this rhetorical analysis example a class apart from others.
“Letter From a Birmingham Jail” is one of the perfect examples of the “The pen is mightier than the sword” adage. Dr. King uses the letter to protest against unjust laws and persuade the public to stand against racial inequality. The letter is a fantastic example of its effective use of ethos, pathos, and logos.
King uses ethos to call for unity against racism in society while simultaneously fighting for Human Rights. Similarly, he uses pathos to evoke an emotional reaction in readers and encourages them to take action. King further reinforces his argument with logos. He offers various reasons that project the real meaning of just and unjust laws.
The letter offers logical explanations for King’s stand against white supremacy. It is written in a reflective tone to attract both the victims of exploitation and those controlling them. This letter is also an example of King’s writing prowess and passion for equality.
Summary of “Letter From a Birmingham Jail”
Martin Luther King Jr composed this letter in response to “A Call for Unity,” written by white clergymen who opposed his nonviolent protest against racial inequality. The letter explains his actions and presents arguments that support his stance.
As a justification for his actions and goals, he uses rational, logical, emotional, and credible arguments.
Nowhere in the letter does he say that clergy members are wrong; instead, he propounds that government must provide equality for all races. Finally, he ends the letter by stating that he is just another human being wanting to develop a better and equal society.
Ethos: King uses ethos in the introduction of the letter. He establishes a moral connection by projecting himself as a man of authority (title of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference’s President). The ethos appeal is made stronger by using words like ‘president’ and ‘every.’
Furthermore, he compares and specifies prominent personalities such as St. Augustine, Apostle Paul, Jesus Christ, etc., to establish a base for the letter. He consistently tries to convince his audience that he wants a revolutionary change to occur. King was a distinguished speaker who knew how to mix rhetorical devices in the best way to persuade his audience.
Moreover, demonstrating immediately recognizable characters is an excellent example of ethos in literary works. Providing such examples allows people to draw analogies and offer a comparable point to prove his credibility.
Pathos: The letter describes the miserable condition endured by African Americans for a long to evoke sympathy from the readers. This is a perfect case of using pathos to elicit emotions in the readers’ minds.
King contends that detaining members and treating them poorly violates human rights. His statement was justified because the protest was nonviolent, and the police violated human rights. He further maintains that the Black community has waited long for human rights, and racism is a violation of the nation’s law and the law of God.
King argues that the Blacks must be given their ‘God-given’ rights while pinpointing that snatching away the right is against the constitution. He further states that democratic countries uphold freedom of speech for each citizen if the actions do not violate legal limits. However, he points out that it is not the situation in reality.
The letter persuades the reader to know and understand the extent of human rights violations. This was proved when the local authorities made the arrest. King used pathos extensively in the letter against white supremacy. As an appeal to his readers, he highlights the life of African Americans who lead pathetic life.
He discusses how Blacks are being stripped of their privileges and how poverty is rampant in his letter. He argues that zero privileges and mistreatment contributed to their backwardness. Due to this, the letter appeals exclusively to the emotions of Blacks. The pathos used in this letter readily assists people in understanding the concept of emotional appeal.
Logos: King understands that captivating readers’ emotions are not enough; they also need to be provided with logical explanations. This is precisely what he does with his rational appeals. One of the eminent pieces of logic used in the letter is the argument on ‘unjust law.’
He further provides a list of such definitions and laws and explains how they are enforced. King unravels how discrimination is perpetuated in society with common logic and understanding without running into logical fallacies.
In his view, the law that people are supposed to follow and the law that was used to arrest him are different, and this is simply the action of an ‘unjust law.’ He further justifies his presence in Birmingham by satirically highlighting the injustice meted out to him and his friends. King states that he and other leaders protesting non-violently were “invited” to prison.
One can find the use of antithesis, parallelism, and alliteration – rhetorical devices in this letter. Some of the lines that highlight the use of antithesis are: “freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed,”
“The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jet-like speed toward the goal of political independence, and we still creep at horse-and-buggy pace toward the gaining of a cup of coffee at a lunch counter.”
Conclusion: The letter’s proper use of ethos, pathos, and logos, combined with King’s passion, make it stand out as outstanding literature and a motivational message. Furthermore, King establishes himself as a trustworthy person by utilizing ethos. He lets people know that he is expecting a change that stands out in the history of America.
Army values are a set of rules that govern the members of the armed forces. These values form the foundations of the Army, instilling bona fide moral principles in the Army profession. The seven values serve as the rudiments for a culture of teamwork, excellence, and respect. They lead to a ready and robust Army that is capable of improvising, adapting, and overcoming adversaries and obstacles.
The US Army officially accepted Army Values in 1995. They are detailed in the “Army Regulation 600-100, Army Leadership, dated March 8, 2007”. The regulation dictates that all soldiers are obligated to embody the seven core values daily in whatever they do, whether on or off duty. Army values are implemented institutionally and encourage army men to live by these values. The US Army has seven core army values. The values are rooted in America’s cultural beliefs. It captures the depth and content of the American character, including its history, sacrifice, and shared heritage.
Army values are known as LDRSHIP, which means “Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, and Personal Courage.”
Loyalty stands for faithfulness to the country and fellow army men. A US soldier must bear allegiance to the United States of America. By extension, the US Army exists solely to defend the country. The Army’s fundamental mandate includes military tasks like the defense of the United States territorial borders. Therefore, every officer must actively and willingly carry out all of the obligations that come with such responsibilities. This value entails warriors accepting all of the obligations that come with their efforts to defend the United States. Duty comprises adhering to military policies and directives while striving for perfection in the execution of military mission objectives.
Duty represents obligations that a soldier must see through under all circumstances. Being in the Army, soldiers have to take part in challenging missions. It’s their obligation to their country to fulfill all their assigned tasks with absolute integrity. This entails being concerned about the welfare of others and making efforts to ensure the well-being and safety of others while doing military tasks.
Respect encompasses how a soldier treats others on and off duty. The Army commands that everyone is treated with the respect they deserve. Soldiers must display the highest regard for their fellow officers at all times. Mutual respect between soldiers and leaders creates a military squad motivated to carry out its mission without the underlying forces of disobedience and rebellion to commands. This prevents the formation of resentments, hatred, and divides among the soldiers. As a result, subordinates are not denigrated but rather valued and encouraged to grow personally as well as professionally in carrying out all military activities.
Selfless service indicates putting the welfare of the country before oneself. Joining the Army means serving a greater purpose. Soldiers must serve the nation without the expectation of gains or recognition. This principle instills in troops a unique perspective that allows them to consider not what their country owes them but what they owe the country in exchange for their service. It entails putting the country’s and the Army’s interests ahead of individual demands. It also entails harming one’s own interests in order to benefit one’s country, Army, and coworkers, as well as to aid success in all military objectives.
Honor is the commitment of every army personnel to live up to the Army standards. It entails going above and beyond the conventional military standards of service and often preceding one’s own rights and privileges in order to serve the nation. It requires adhering to all Army requirements and establishing a reputation for putting the Army’s principles ahead of one’s own, even if it means jeopardizing one’s own life.
Integrity represents the moral courage to do what is right in the face of impossible odds. A soldier must be honest and transparent; they must not be deceitful. They should always abide by moral principles and do right by everyone around them. US soldiers are expected to be unassailable. As a result, all troops are required to be truthful in their words and actions. Soldiers must be morally beyond reproach to the point where they may prioritize righteousness above popularity and act morally even in the absence and vigilance of their leaders.
Personal courage means facing fears, enduring physical duress, and taking necessary risks to safeguard the country. It refers to a soldier’s ability to put fear aside and do what is expected of them as an Army member. Moral bravery refers to a soldier’s commitment to stick by military standards, beliefs, and personal convictions in order to provide conscientious duty even if doing so may be harmful. Soldiers must carry out their duties honorably without the fear of consequences.
The moral foundations of the Army Ethic (as described in ADRP 1 The Army Profession (June 14, 2015)) encompass the seven Army Values as we know them today. While the American Army has always been a values-based institution, the current Army Values appear to have gradually evolved during the latter years of the Vietnam War. The changes were implemented in response to the 1968 My Lai atrocity.
The principles of the Army Ethic and the Army Values embedded within it have long existed and been a source of debate and honor among members of the profession. Over the years, the Army has studied and expressed our individual and institutional principles as Army professionals and evaluated and reinterpreted their declared and operational values as a profession. This dynamic work is still ongoing today.
The Army values signify a way of life for soldiers; it’s more than just simple words. These principles are not only applicable to the US Army. In fact, everyone can benefit from instituting these values in their daily lives. These principles can foster more resilience and make us better citizens. A better citizen means a better society. We all have something that we can learn from these Army values.
Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein discusses the dangerous outcomes of unethical scientific discoveries. While Victor’s creation is deemed to be monstrous on the surface, Victor is the real monster of the story. His selfishness and disregard for nature lead him to create the living creature, which ultimately results in the deaths of his friends, family, and himself.
Victor Frankenstein’s character can be interpreted as the typical mad scientist who is indifferent to all boundaries. Even though Frankenstein constructed this creature from dismembered parts of other beings, he quickly concluded that the creature was too horrible to love, resulting in the creature’s abandonment by his own creator.
The creature may embody everything that we imagine a monster to look like, but one cannot deny that the true evil is his creator. Unlike actual monsters, Victor’s creation displays emotions and compassion. He demonstrates incredible benevolence and sensitivity. But society, especially Victor, cannot overlook his grotesque appearance.
They judge him purely on his physicality. Victor’s hatred towards his creation causes the creature to become a monster. For instance, when he extends a helping hand to a group of poor peasants and saves a girl from drowning, he is unfortunately rewarded with beatings and scorn because of his outward appearance.
While the creature is humane and is driven by knowledge, his desire for social approval is met with perpetual rejection. This rejection instills resentment in the creature for his irresponsible creator, Victor Frankenstein. Consequently, Victor suffers more misfortunes as a result of the creature’s rage.
The worst tragedy in Frankentien’s story is the murder of innocent people, including Victor’s own family. The creature would not have committed the horrific murders if Victor had not abandoned him. Only if Victor had taught him that murder was not an ethical and immoral response, the ending would have been much different.
The creature was brought to life artificially. His understanding of the world was limited. He needed nourishment and love, then maybe he would have had the emotional capacity to differentiate between right and wrong.
Throughout the journey, it’s seen that Frankenstein’s creation is torn between vengefulness and compassion. He is remorseful, tormented, and lonesome till the end. Even the death of his creator provides only bittersweet relief. Victor’s death delights him because Victor has caused him so much pain. At the same time, he is consumed with guilt and sadness because Victor is the only person with whom he has ever had any kind of relationship.
Despite everything that the creature does, the actual blame falls on Victor. The creature’s actions are the result of Victor’s neglect. When Victor exposes his genuine motives for creating life, these objectives can be interpreted as someone putting himself above God. His fixation with becoming like God may be evident in his motivations behind creating the monster.
In the novel, he states, “A new species would bless me as its creator and source; countless joyful and great natures would owe their origin to me.” Victor’s use of the term “bless,” which is a religious connotation. Therefore, it gives the impression that Victor has a God complex. As a result of his God complex, Victor Frankenstein believes he is above all moral laws, including digging up previously buried bodies.
Victor dehumanizes the creature the moment it comes to life. He designates his creation as “a demoniacal corpse,” as if it was born inherently evil. But it was his treatment and that of the society at large which converts the sentient being to become a murderer.
The protagonist Victor Frankenstein is both the victim and the perpetrator in this story. He suffers devastating losses and slowly becomes disillusioned. However, his terrible rejection of the creature ignites the start of a journey that will ultimately lead to his death. Victor discounted his creation’s life for selfish gain, which inevitably resulted in his own and those close to him’s immense personal misery.
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